The Swedish Chef of Metric

By The Metric Maven

I’ve always had a soft spot for Sweden, even though I have never been there. I spent some of my youth living in the American ersatz version called Minnesota. I liked living there enough that a local grocer in my Iowa hometown would say “we don’t allow Minnesota Swedes in here” to rib me about it.

I try not to read too many of the online comments in reaction to my views on the best usage of the metric system from Europeans. Generally I’m told how they are from long-time metric countries, and I, who live in perhaps the last non-metric country, have no standing to discuss metric. Italians tell me they happily use deciliters, and the French embrace centimeters like freshly baked bread. I don’t get that excited, and tend to yawn at their oral gesticulating. I’m only concerned about the US, and should a miracle occur and it become metric, would push it do so with the best metric implementation possible—by 1000. I also have no emotional connection with Italy or France.

Pierre, the master chef, machinist, woodworker and histrionic anti-metric warrior, loves to go for the emotional jugular when amiably pointing out the “difficulties” in using metric to test my mettle, but he did not have good knowledge of an effective European target. Point to the French all you want Pierre, I have no emotional entanglement. But as a stopped watch is right twice a day, Pierre managed to hit an accidental bullseye when he brought up the Swedes in an email:

Next, bad news for you, I’m afraid. But, maybe I can benefit, so it’s really good news.

As you can see from the book “Scandinavian Quilt Style blah blah blah” Scandinavia doesn’t use the metric system! I’ve deleted the part of the book actually related to the contents, except the important page, which I’ve thoughtfully highlighted for you to make it easier to read. You are welcome.

Money quote:

I work with inches. I have used inches for years, my instructions are in inches and the people I sew with all use inches. All the designs in this book were made with inches and the instructions were written while sewing.

Published by a European publisher. For Europeans.

The good news (for me) is that there may be an opening to be an Imperial measurements consultant in Norway. Somebody’s got to help them transition back into the civilized world. Don’t be afraid of inches tour ’18. Yah!

Well, I did my best to remind myself that the clothing and textile industry from the days of Samuel S. Dale onward have done their best to repel any logical implementation of the metric system. Indeed, for some reason woodworking Swedes also hang onto their non-Anglo-Saxon inches, like crayfish at kräftskiva, but I’m also told that woodworkers often don’t bother to measure anything. I kept averting my eyes from Pierre’s prose, as if I was watching Freddy Kruger chasing down teenagers. Then Pierre continued his schadenfreude laden monologue:

This whole metric system thing is soooooo easy, huh?

Here’s a page from noted Swedish food author Erica Palmcrantz Aziz …. In her brand new book Superfood Boost, she presents a lovely voice trying to convince us to eat raw kale as often as possible. Yum! She also has a page on growing your own sprouts.

Here is that page. I call your attention to that first paragraph. The rest makes more sense, if you don’t mind moving your sprouts around from container to container for no reason.

Now, …. I’m sure that you are just like me and measure out precisely 1.5 fluid ounces of mung bean seeds, each time you sprout. But, how handy to know that in Sweden, she would use, and correct me if I’m wrong, one deciliter of seeds. That sounds like about a pound, which would fill my kitchen sink with product.

I’d use a tablespoon or two per quart jar. Apparently, their metric jars must be much bigger in the festive, kale eating world of Stockholm. (Actual quote from her book, “Kale is not just for Christmas anymore” p.27)

Later she says this: “Massage and toss the cabbage (and by this, she means kale) with some olive oil, salt, and lemon, or

add it to a smoothie or juice, or enjoy it with a creamy dressing. “

So, slather that stuff with a traditional Swedish ranch dressing and it’ll help you get it down. You know, for health.

Another time she says a benefit of kale eating is, “To fill up on chlorophyll, which is said to purify and detoxify the blood”

Now, I have a liver for that function, but your shitty cold-weather desperation tundra food “is said” to detoxify my blood?

We’ll let’s have some of that.

Massage your kale, Maven. Embrace the deciliter. Purify your blood. A wealth of wisdom here. You might want to download it.

So 100 mL and 500 mL was too difficult to use in Sweden?—deciliters are a better idea? Oh…the pain “Børk! Børk! Børk!”

A point I have made over the years is that countries that adopted the metric system in the 19th century are at a disadvantage over those who waited until the late 20th century to convert. Sweden, showing their progressive nature, embraced the metric system in 1876, after ignoring it for 9 years of their 10 year conversion, but like most metric countries, they adopted it, and then never thought about upgrading its use. This lack of introspection really cuts me to the quick. The happy Sven jokes I heard in Minnesota, are not as fun when I think of this fact. The use of deciliters and such by the Swedes indicates they are Mormons Making Coffee when it comes to the metric system. New Zealand (1969), Australia (1970) and South Africa (1971) use millimeters in their housing construction. They fearlessly use milliliters and grams without the prefix cluster around unity to cook.

Please Sweden, don’t leave me bereft, measure your meatballs in grams, measure their diameter in millimeters, and express their volume in milliliters. Until you do, it will perennially feel as uncomfortable as a warm winter for me. Don’t make me wait until Fimbulwinter freezes hell over, although that might still happen before the US becomes metric.

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Belmond Mills Smaller

Old Mill on the Iowa River (click to enlarge) Belmond Historical Society

By The Metric Maven

In my single digit youth I often walked across the “old bridge” in my small town. One could see right off of the concrete bed of this truss type bridge over the Iowa River. I noticed that a small dam existed with an opening near the center of the river. People would often walk out on this dam, which had a height of only 1 to 1.5 meters or so, and fish. One day in the local library I saw a painting that showed an old mill had been on the river. I was quite surprised and asked if it had really been there. The librarian said it had, and was washed away during a flood.

Belmond historic 085

Old Bridge Over The Iowa River    (Belmond Historical Society)

It was a decade or so later that I learned photographs of the “old mill” existed. One of them is inset above. On the far right side of this photo is the location of the “new mill.” A local history1 offers little detail about the design of the “old mill.” Before the old mill, there was an original mill. A dam was constructed and:

The river provided the power for the first flour and sawmill built in 1855 or early 1856 by Dr. Cutler and Archer Dumond.” … “After only a few months’ use, this first mill constructed by the early settlers was washed away by flood waters in the spring of 1856.

In 1857, the next mill constructed was a steam mill. The following year, 1858, was so wet that the steam mill was surrounded by water that season. The machinery was sold and moved to Kansas. Apparently, rather than use the river for a source of power, an experimentation with steam took place.

The “old mill” in the photograph was constructed on the site of the “original mill” in 1858 by G.H. Armsbury. It was both a sawmill and gristmill. It is not stated if it was a water powered mill, but judging from the details of the transaction, it probably was. In 1863, George A. Thompson took charge of the gristmill. His relative Joseph Fulton became a part-owner of the mill, which, in 1870, was the only flour mill in Wright County. In the Spring of 1870 Fulton became entangled in the mill workings when he went to the basement to oil some of the parts. He was killed instantly. Assuming this is a mill that utilized a flat mill stone, they could revolve up to 125 RPM, with a considerable mass.

The mill dam was renovated numerous times before the “old mill” was finally retired. The “new mill” was constructed about 1901 and the “old mill” was:

….being torn down. The timbers are rotting away and it would soon be at the mercy of the first serious wind storm. In the days of long ago, it furnished flour to farmers as far away as Spirit Lake.

The last mill in Belmond Iowa was torn down in 1935, the location of the final millstone is a mystery. The bridge I traversed as a boy was the only structure left from this time period. It was replaced decades ago. I suspect the millstone was a flat affair that was common at this time. It is my understanding that some people actually collect old mill stones which have many unique cutting patterns rendered on their surface. Grain would be fed into the hole at the top. It would work its way down into the meeting line of the rotating upper stone and the static lower one. The milled grain then worked its way outward where it was collected.

I thought about this local history when I was re-reading The Ancient Engineers by L. Sprauge de Camp. The grinding of grain was of paramount importance to the creation of bread. This was a consistent staple: (page 243)

“…Throughout the ancient empires, bread was the principal food. To make it, wheat or barley grain had to be ground into flour. At first the grain was painfully pounded with a pestle in a mortar, as you can still see done in Central Africa.

At a later time, the grain was ground between two flat stones, one of which was pushed back and forth over the other. With such a mill, one person—usually a slave girl—could grind each day only enough grain to make bread for eight people. Hence, in a large household, several such women would have to spend their entire day at the weary task of pushing and pulling the upper millstone. The two ever-present sounds of ancient households were the clack of the loom and the grate of the hand mill.”

The implementation of water power to grind grain, is a perfect example of employing engineering to help keep a community fed, and reduce the horrible mind-numbing boredom of an essential all-day repetitive task.

All of the examples of millstones I had seen were a pair of stone cylinders with a flat interface between them. The small hand versions are called quern-stones. The large millstone examples I had seen using water power were always like this. One stone had patterns cut into it for the grain to be ground and then work its way out from the center where it could be collected by a pan at its edge.

I encountered a pair of surprises when L. Sprauge deCamp offered this drawing of a hand mill from ancient Pompeii:

Hourglass-Mill-AEThis is known as an hourglass mill and was used in Hellenistic and Roman times. I was quite surprised that it was possible to make stone conform to these shapes, but what really confused me were the dimensions. Throughout The Ancient Engineers, all the dimensions are in Ye Olde English. The book was published in 1960, so this is not surprising, but what on Earth were the units m/m? I knew that ca. meant “approximately,” or “about this dimension,” but m/m was strange. I hypothesized that it was millimeters—even though the entire complement of the book is in Olde English measures. The values 900 mm and 700 mm seemed to make approximate sense. What is wonderful about our modern world is that I can do a web search on hourglass mills and see photographs of the mills at Pompeii:

HourglassMillPompeiiThe dimensions in millimeters found on the drawing make sense, but the use of m/m for millimeters was unknown to me at that point. I consulted with Peter Goodyear, and he found examples of guns drills, and clocks that are still designated with m/m for millimeters! I have no idea where the designation m/m originated, but amazingly it is still in use.  Indeed here is a specification table from a Tawianese company that makes paper cutters:

Paper-Cutter-m-slash-mI’m pleased they used millimeters, but amazed and annoyed that m/m is used for mm. This is another example of an introduced usage from another era that continues to complicate our modern world in an unnecessary manner. It also demonstrates just how hard reform that would simplify our world is to achieve.

[1] History of Belmond, Iowa 1856-2006 Belmond Historical Society

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The Metric Maven has published a new book titled The Dimensions of The Cosmos. It examines the basic quantities of the world from yocto to Yotta with a mixture of scientific anecdotes and may be purchased here.