The Shrinking World

By The Metric Maven

In the 1960s and 1970s it was common to hear people talk about “our shrinking world.” What they meant by that was the speed of transportation had increased
by such a large amount that traveling from one part of the globe to another took mere hours. A journey that might have taken years in the past, could now be traversed in days. It is my understanding that humans had reached more-or-less every region of the globe by the medieval period in Europe. From that point on, their  isolation from one another decreased such that today people travel to Easter Island on a regular basis as tourists.

What appears to exist for many people is a sort of cognitive dissonance about our planet. People will drive through Wyoming and think the world is so large that humans have no ability to affect it. There is plenty of room, you can see it with your own eyes. The problem is that often we cannot see changes with our eyes, we require instruments to augment our feeble senses, and what they can reveal is sobering.

Thomas Midgley (Wikimedia Commons)

In the early years of the twentieth century, gasoline engines suffered from knocking. The spark plug in an internal combustion engine is meant to ignite the gas/air mixture arriving from the carburetor in a homogeneous fashion, but can combust in a localized manner. This causes knocking. In 1921 Thomas Midgley (1889-1944) discovered that adding Tetraethyllead (TEL) to gasoline eliminated knocking. Early on he also discovered that the addition of alcohol could also solve the problem. Adding alcohol would have very little profit potential, whereas adding lead was patentable and would maximize it. Midgley argued publicly that there was no substitute for TEL, when he knew otherwise. There was a willful disregard by Midgley and his partners for the health hazards that lead could cause, which is borne out by the fact they named the additive “Ethyl” so that any mention of lead could be avoided.

The Latin word for lead is plumbum. This is why the symbol for lead in the periodic table of elements is Pb. Lead is a very heavy material, and that is the origin of the phrase “to plummet to the Earth.” It became clear long ago that lead was also poisonous, and could make a person “plumb crazy.” Medical researchers warned that lead in gasoline could poison the nation. Workers exposed to TEL during manufacture suffered from paranoia and had to be institutionalized, others simply died. By 1945, everyone on Earth was fueling their vehicles with leaded gasoline.

In the 1968 movie, What’s So Bad About Feeling Good, a virus outbreak that makes everyone nice to one another, is finally cured by adding an anti-virus vaccine to gasoline and petroleum products. The movie plot shows it was a proverbial idea in the 1960s that putting the cure into petroleum products would make certain that every one on Earth would be exposed. In that era, I recall seeing the sides of gasoline pumps with a large sign warning us that the gasoline we were purchasing contained lead. The idea that lead was poisoning us all seemed proverbial. Yet, with capital to burn, petroleum public relations groups implemented a campaign of denialism, their research “showed” that TEL was harmless. I’m sure that if people didn’t want to purchase gasoline, that was their “choice” and so all was well and no intervention was needed.

An article in New Scientist[1] claims that by the time lead was removed from gasoline

“… with some 75 trillion litres of leaded gasoline burned, science woke up from its amnesia about the dangers of lead.”

New Scientist decided to go non metric with an Olde English prefix modifier, trillion, which helps to obfuscate what the number means. The volume of gasoline in metric is 75 Teraliters. It is estimated that two grams of lead per gallon (yes that’s how it was expressed–in pigfish) was in gasoline at the time. This works out to about 0.5284 grams/liter (forgive the excessive decimal places in the conversion, it actually helps in the end). When one multiplies 75 TL by this value, we end up with a total of about 40 Teragrams of lead belched into the atmosphere. But how bad is this for each of us? Well the population of the planet is 7.5 Giga-people. This works out to about 5 grams of lead for each person on the planet.

So, how bad is this? Well the upper limit for blood is 10 micrograms of lead per 100 grams of blood. There are around 5 liters of blood per person, so we can approximate this as about 5 Kg of blood or 5000 grams. This works out to about 50 micrograms of lead in the bloodstream for an adult human before he is considered poisoned. Assuming we go with double this value, 100 micrograms, we each could have been poisoned at least 50 000 times by the amount of lead released as a result of Midgley’s desire for fame and fortune. For Midgley, our entire planet became an externality. The good news is that since lead was banned in gasoline, the levels of lead in the blood of children has dropped to 1/3 what it was at its peak.

I have been criticized in the past for insisting that the large metric prefixes (Kilo through Yotta) should be taught in school from the youngest age possible, and memorized,
like multiplication tables were before the advent of calculators. 75 trillion liters is not metric, it’s Olde English Pigfish. 75 Teraliters tells me a quantity in a compact way, as does a Terabyte drive (that is a massively big number). Tera immediately tells me the magnitude is 1012 (I remember the value of this prefix as tera sounds like twelve). Using the large prefix, with some basic assumptions about the mass of water and its volume, because of the clever design of the metric system, I quickly estimated the amount of lead each of us had the potential to ingest, and how badly this could poison us all. When metric is not used, it simply allows for the obfuscation of meaning, like “Ethyl.” As I’ve said in the past, we may not be able to directly understand large numbers, but we can express them within a metric world where their values can be understood in terms of what they mean to our planet, or the size of our universe. With the metric system We can realize that our planet is finite, and that it is possible for a single human
being to poison the entire Earth, and everyone who resides there, independent of whether they have ever used a gasoline engine, or not.

The use of ammonia for refrigeration was a dangerous practice in the early twentieth century. Thomas Midgley was celebrated for also creating Freon, the first of the CFCs, that solved the danger that ammonia presented to humans. Unfortunately it would later be discovered that CFCs were destroying our ozone layer, and an ozone hole began forming over Antarctica. But that is another story, which also involves large metric prefixes used to shrink our world, and make it understandable.

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[1] The One-Man Environmental Disaster New Scientist 2017-06-10 pp 42-43

The Ephemeral Search for The Real Planet 9

By The Metric Maven

This last Summer I visited Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff Arizona. I saw the telescope where Percival Lowell (1855-1916) convinced himself he saw canals on Mars. In science one can easily fall in love with a hypothesis and begin to see what you expect to see. After the Martian canals had been vanquished, and Perceval Lowell had passed away, a young Astronomer by the name of Clyde Tombaugh (1906-1997) took up his search for a ninth planet. Tombaugh painstakingly photographed the night sky and miraculously discovered a new planet (expected to be at least Earth-sized) in the expected area of the sky predicted in February of 1930. The amazing part, is how lucky Tombaugh had been. Pluto has a 17 degree tilt upward from the ecliptic, which means its not in the plane of the other planets—where one would expect to find it. Pluto was in a location where it was very close to the ecliptic—a rare occurrence. With an orbital period of 280 years, if Pluto had been in its farthest part of its orbit, Tombaugh would have gazed into empty space. In many ways he won a cosmic lottery ticket. The new planet  became known as Pluto and as PL is also the initials of Percival Lowell, it was greeted with open arms at Lowell Observatory. All was fine until a team, lead by Mike Brown (1965- ) at Cal Tech, located Eris which is much farther out from the Sun than Pluto, and appeared to be larger than Pluto, was, for a while, considered Planet 10, with Pluto still designated as Planet 9.

Better measurements slowly reduced the mass, size and mathematical need for Pluto to provide an explanation of the now nonexistent gravitational perturbations. As we all know now, Pluto is at best considered a dwarf planet in the Kuiper Belt. After Pluto’s change in categorization, it stopped being the last planet discovered, and became the first Kuiper Belt object discovered. Planet 9 then vanished in an organizational puff of smoke. The description of our solar system from the Sun to the hypothetical Ort Cloud looked quite fixed at that point. In 2010, astronomer Mike Brown wrote a book titled How I killed Pluto and Why It Had It Coming. He had been at the forefront of Pluto’s nomenclatureral demise. Then in January of 2016, he and Konstantin Batygin (1986- ),  would ironically propose the existence of a new planet, based on orbital perturbations,  the same type of evidence that began the search for Pluto by Tombaugh.

The new non-Pluto Planet 9 begins its theoretical existence with a large mass of 60 000 Yottagrams, and an orbital distance that varies from 30 000 Gigameters to 180 000 Gigameters. It has a semi-major axis of about 105 000 Gigameters. Gigameter is the natural  metric unit for describing the distances of planets in a solar system. Planet 9 is estimated to take about 10 000 to 20 000 years for a single orbit around the sun. Uranus, at 87 000 Yottagrams, is slightly more massive than the hypothetical Planet 9.

In June of 2017, Kat Volk, and Renu Malhotra, both from the University of Arizona, announced that computations they undertook indicate that a 10th planet exists. They estimate it is about 9000 Gigameters from the Sun and possesses a mass about that of Mars. Again, unexpected gravitational perturbations led researchers to suspect the existence of another planet, other than Planet 9.

In order to compare the two newly hypothesized planets, with our existing list of Planets, Kuiper Belt objects, and human created spacecraft; I have updated a table given in my essay Long Distance Voyager (about metric distances and the universe) which is presented below:

The first change I noticed is that if Planet 9 exists, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 would no longer be “outside our solar system.” So are the Voyager Spacecraft still in interstellar space, or do we redefine them as inside our solar system? Categorization can be a difficult objective for astronomy, but where the Voyager spacecraft are, will probably not stir up the controversy that Pluto did when Eris was discovered. Eris is appropriately named for the Greek goddess of Strife and discord. The other categorization problem is that Planet 10 is well inside the orbit of Planet 9, so one would think they should swap numbers so Planet 10 is the furthest out and Planet 9 the next planet toward the Sun. Planet 10 also finds itself outside of the Kuiper Belt, and is probably a Trans-Neptunian planet, although how meaningful this designation would be remains to be seen. Planet 10 is between Pluto and Eris, and Planet 9 is the farthest hypothetical planet out by about an order of magnitude compared to Planet 10.

In many cases, astronomical masses outstrip the metric system, and one must resort to scientific notation, but in the case of our solar system, it might be useful to express the values using a large metric prefix. We will use Yottagrams, as that is the last magnifying metric prefix. Below is a table of Planetary Mass for selected objects in our solar system.

It is clear that Jupiter dominates the mass total of our solar system. One can estimate immediately that Jupiter is somewhere on the order of three times the mass of
the next most massive planet Saturn. Mercury, the smallest planet, is well over an order of magnitude more massive than Pluto or Eris. Pluto and Eris are an order of magnitude larger than Ceres the largest asteroid in the Asteroid Belt. It is clear that Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune form a Gas Giant mass class that is separate, and dominates all the other planets. The new Planet 9, should it exist, would be the runt member of this fraternity–unless it is not a Gas Giant, we then might need to implement a new designation from boxing and call them the Heavymass planets. The new Planet 10 would currently be grouped with the current Rocky planets, but from a distance perspective it would be the only member of this designation outside of the classical distance grouping of the inner and outer planets that are bounded on either side by the Asteroid Belt. Perhaps the less massive rocky planets could be called the Lightmass rocky planets, unless Planet 10 is gaseous? Whatever the Astronomical Union decides, the metric system is there for them, whether they use it, or not.

If you liked this essay and wish to support the work of The Metric Maven, please visit his Patreon Page.

Related Essays:

Long Distance Voyager

The Expanding Universe


The Metric Maven has published a book titled The Dimensions of The Cosmos. It examines the basic quantities of the world from yocto to Yotta with a mixture of scientific anecdotes and may be purchased here.