My Stepfather sent me an interesting metric artifact that reminds me of the Rosetta Stone. First a bit of background. It was not uncommon in the past that plastic 75 mm x 110 mm card-like cases, which have a plastic card inside of them, with technical information were available for sale, and for institutional promotion. A good college friend had one that I was jonesen for in the worst way. I did make a photocopy of it, well part of one side of it. I have taken a photo and the image is below. I was completely enamored, but had no idea how to obtain one, and my friend could not recall where she obtained it. The amount of information on this small plastic card was amazing, and with young eyes, provided easy access for any science or engineering exam.
The edge of this image of the plastic card has a copyright symbol, a year, 1968, and Concise International CO., LTD. The internet has made any esoteric item’s history easily found. The Smithsonian has a page with the exact model my friend owns. It is the Concise 6000 Science Tables and Circular Slide Rule:
The outer plastic case has a four inch rule on one side, and a 10 cm (tsk…tsk) or 100 mm on the other. The front has a circular slide rule, and the back a copy of the periodic table of the elements. At the top of the table is a Fahrenheit to Celsius conversion chart. The plastic card inside contains an incredible amount of mathematical, chemical and physical data, as well as conversion factors. The International Slide Rule Museum has an eclectic group of Concise products. They were made for a number of technical institutions as promotional items. I was quite interested in the one which was created for electrical engineers:
There are many different versions shown online, but my Stepfather sent me one that is unique to me. The front side of the plastic cover is shown below:
I have essentially zero understanding of the Japanese language, so the ideographs for metric quantities caught my attention immediately. Below are the symbols for lengths.
What is interesting is the symbol for meter is a single character. That character has another to the right of the meter symbol for millimeter, and a different symbol to the right for Kilometer. The values are nice and concise and seem metric in form, but the prefix is on the suffix side. The symbols for inch, foot, yard, chain and mile require three symbols it appears. They are clearly foreign to the Japanese and require more description than their metric counterparts. The Japanese lengths tend to have more compact symbols, but not always. According to Wikipedia the values are:
bu = 3.03 mm
sun = 30.3 mm
shaku = 303 mm
ken = 1818 mm
cho = 109.1 meters
ri = 3.927 Kilometers
The values for mass are given as:
We can see the carat has a very complex symbol. The symbol for the gram is distinctive and follows a similar suffix rather than prefix location for modifying the gram. Despite the designation of t for tonne, the symbol looks more like that for Megagram, Mg, and in my view should have been designated as such. The grain, ounce, pound (assuming US?) have complex symbols, and the long and short ton have even more complex looking symbols. The native Japanese mass values appear far more concise than the Ye Old English ones. Their values are:
fun = 375 mg
me = 3.75 g
kan = 3.75 Kg
kin = 600 grams
The back side of the card holder has more equivalent values:
The cubic and capacity are at bit curious:
The symbol for liter has a nice look of a volume. The symbol is shown in the symbol for cubic centimeter, but it would have been nice to have it be a milliliter with a two symbol combination as with millimeter and Kilometer. The liter symbol appears to be included in the symbol for cubic meter. Somehow there appears to be an understanding they are all equivalent to multiples of the volume of a liter. I will not attempt to offer values for the Japanese volumes.
The front of the interior plastic card has length and mass conversions:
The back has area and volume equivalents.
While the internet has made such conversion charts mostly obsolete, it is interesting to look at some of the archaic values. The one which is new to me is the register ton, which is equal to one hundred cubic feet. According to Wikipedia, this volume unit was used to describe a ship’s total interior volume.
It is interesting that even without any understanding of Japanese, they appear to have used a logical symbolism that can be, to a certain extent, teased from the context. Mathematics may be the universal language, but the metric system is the universal relationship between the physical world and mathematics—well—except in the US.
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If you can’t dazzle them with brilliance, baffle them with bullshit.
– W.C. Fields
There is much hype these days surrounding big data. Massive amounts of information can be sifted and searched. Large amounts of data by themselves are of little use without an organizing idea. In the case of climate data, it is generally large, complex and evaluated by specialists who study the Earth’s climate. It can be proxy data that is found in rocks or elsewhere, it can be satellite data that provides information on temperature, pressure, wind speeds and so on. To the average person, this data provides little information they can directly evaluate. In the US, it is believed that the opinion of someone as ignorant as a politician on a particular subject, has the same validity as the consensus of a scientific community, which dedicates itself full-time to the subject under discussion. As Charles Pierce points out in Idiot America “[they offer] The potent narcotic of reassuring simplicity.” It is hard to overcome that.
The fact that the scientific theory and data involved is complex, allows those who dislike a particular scientific consensus, to simply deny it is valid, offer a simple and reassuring ad hoc explanation, and bask in the glow of approval from those who want to believe the same.
Sea level rise is reported to have already begun to encroach on Venice Italy and coastal Florida, but the number of people who live within a Kilometer or two of a coastline are the only one’s who are most likely see the immediate evidence that sea level is rising. Twenty seven US states are landlocked, so their populations will not currently experience sea level rise directly. About 3.7 million Americans live within a meter or so of high tide, and have significant risk of sea level becoming a problem in the future, but with about 325 million or so people in the US one can guesstimate that only one in one 88 people are currently in danger should this eventually happen. Even then it would be possible for a large majority of the nation to simply say “why should I believe it? I’ve never seen it.” There are lots of measurements that are being taken that show that sea level is rising. Satellite data from 1993 to 2017 show a rate of sea level increase of about 3.4 millimeters per year (+/- 0.4 mm) with a total increase from 1993 to the present of 88.2 mm.
Using tidal gauge records, sea level change from 1870 to 2000 is estimated to be almost 200 mm.
A male human hand is about 100 mm wide, so the ocean has been measured to have increased by about two male hand-widths from 1870-2000. A female human hand is about 80 mm in width for about 2.5 hand-widths. A little over a single female hand-width is how far sea level has risen from 1993 to 2017.
The majority of the US population is not involved in those measurements, and so if a politician does not like the measurement outcome computed by scientists, it is easy to just argue the researchers are just a bunch of long hairs that can be dismissed. After all, can anyone really see this change? When a person goes to the beach it looks just the same. Those scientists just aren’t as smart as they think! A regular person can clearly see that the ocean is fine, and that 80 millimeters is so small it doesn’t matter anyway. This is all so abstract, and so it is easy to rationalize that the persons involved are thought to be “alarmist” and only want to “preserve their jobs by showing there is a problem.” Very few people are directly exposed to science in this country, and so its operation is very removed from their intuition. Before Sputnik only 25% of high school students took a class in physics, now it has rocketed to about 30% or so. Seventy percent of US high school students have never even been exposed to the concepts that are used to obtain the measured data that could severely impact their future. Beyond the simple information they lack, critical thinking skills are also not encouraged in US education—or in US social interaction. This tsunami of ignorance among the US populace, makes it easy for those with a predilection to believe whatever is convenient, to do so.
About 15 years ago a new local weatherman began to host the 10 o’clock weather each night, and I noticed something interesting. He began emphasizing how many years back record highs were. One night he sort of slipped and said something on the order of “back then I’m sure President Garfield was concerned about global warming.” There it was, my weatherman was spouting off about his belief that global warming is a bunch of hot air.
Many times over the next few years, I would hear him say “and the record high for this date was way back in……” It began appearing to me that a larger number of record highs were occurring in the 21st century, and fewer and fewer were from the 19th or before the late 20th century. Of course this was just what I seemed to be seeing each night as I watched the local weather. I had not done any formal analysis, it could just have been confirmation bias on my part.
The winter of 2013-2014 saw a sudden stratospheric warming, this caused the stable polar vortex to become unstable and move southward into the US. It was bone-chillingly cold. Water pipes installed below the street in front my father’s house in 1973 froze solid. This had never happened before. For over a month he had to bring water to his house by hand. The longhairs had said that this crazy change in temperature had been the result of arctic warming! Yet again it was very easy for those who don’t have any respect for science to dismiss climate change with a quick look outside. Senator James Inhofe stated “we keep hearing that 2014 has been the warmest year on record.” and then produced a snowball “It’s a snowball, and that’s just from outside here, so it’s very, very cold out, very unseasonable.” The Senator then famously tossed the snowball at the chair.
My weatherman now had a new mantra during his weather report. When record highs were shown around the same time as the early 2014 North American cold wave had taken place, he would point out that just last year a record low was set on the same date. See! they cancel each other out and so there is no such thing as global warming! This semi-regular chortling from my weatherman became a bit grating, but I had watched this channel for years, and it looked like he just might be on his way to retirement soon.
This year (2017) I began to notice a sudden quiescence. My weatherman seemed to almost skip over the record highs and lows. It appeared that a very, very large number of record highs were all well within the 21st century, and others occurred after the 1980s or so. Still, I realized that it was my perception, and I had not done any analysis. The data I viewed was for but one US city.
Then on 2017-03-09 Phil Plait provided actual data analysis. If the number of record highs and record lows were random, then they should average out to zero, which implies their ratio would be one. In other words, the number of new record highs should statistically be about the same as record lows. From Plait’s essay:
The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research collated data from 1800 stations across the US and binned the data by decade — by decade, which is a huge sample; any deviation from a 1:1 ratio would be extraordinary over that timescale. They found this:
And making this more global, a pair of Australian scientists looked at their country’s data, and found that their ratios were about even…until the 1960s. After that, highs always outnumber lows. From 2000-2014, record highs outnumbered lows there by 12:1.”
How does one deal with eggheaded scientists who are measuring temperatures and sea levels with satellites? It’s simple, you just stop them from measuring. If you are a politician who wants to continue business as usual, then it’s simple, defund the annoying measurement devices that are being used to quantify atmospheric information. To deal with it, you begin a war on measurement. The current administration has, so far, not made a single political appointment who is a scientist, or has a scientific background. These are the soldiers you employ for this war on measurement. These are the same people who have made war on the metric system in the past, and will continue to eschew it from political discourse, or in their ignorance, continue to make sport of it with their granfalloon praising their wishful assertions.
Long ago, temperatures in Celsius were defeated by these reactionary warriors, but information in Fahrenheit continued to remain publicly available. Temperatures are the common commodity of small talk in the US. Unlike satellite data, they are “little data.” They are not data that require esoteric instruments to make measurements. Every citizen of the US probably has a thermometer. Most new cars have a thermometer to measure the outside temperature. Those who don’t like the interpretations of everyday temperature data find themselves in a predicament, they can wage a further war on measurement, or the very idea of measurement, and expect the public to accept that even the most basic science is faulty, or they can simply state that the obviously increasing number of record highs is natural, and somehow not caused by humans. This relies on a war on the measurements and quantification concerning the amount of CO2 that is belched into our atmosphere each year (10 Petagrams of carbon or 36.67 Pg of CO2). The use of pigfish such as millions or billions of tonnes, without a population that is numerate enough to know the difference between Mega, Giga, Tera or Peta is an extension of the US war on measurements which began with a US war on the metric system.
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