# Metric Wishcraft

By The Metric Maven

In response to an Op-Ed I wrote promoting the metric system, one commentator stated in opposition to my proposition:

Also saying electricity and gas are measured in improper units then says they should be in gigajoules….kilowatt-hr  and BTUs are amounts of energy just like joules. You can convert BTUs to kWhs and kilowatt hr is metric.  He’s an “engineer” he can convert easily between the two

The internet has provided a place where any immediate thoughtless ejaculation of words can be posted. This concatenation of confabulation was no exception. The specific assertion that caught my attention is his statement that a “kilowatt hr is metric.” Well, I’m afraid I’d have to demur. A kilowatt is metric, and when expressed by this “engineer” in a more fundamental manner is 1000 joules per second. So far, so metric. There is a problem however with multiplying a joule/second by an hour. This will produce joule*hours/second, which is not good dimensional analysis. The base unit for time in the metric system (SI) is the second. An hour is not a metric unit, and multiplying watts by hours immediately disqualifies Kilowatt-hours as a metric expression.

I can only assume that the BTUs were brought up as the units this “commentor” assumed are used for natural gas. My gas bill has the energy of natural gas designated with therms. There is not a BTU to be found. If there were BTUs they would very likely be designated with MMBtu or mmBtu which are one million BTUs. Why the MM or mm?—well Wikipedia—what do you have to say?:

The unit MBtu or mBtu was defined as one thousand BTU, presumably from the Roman numeral system where “M” or “m” stands for one thousand (1,000). This notation is easily confused with the SI mega- (M) prefix, which denotes multiplication by a factor of one million (×106), or with the SI milli- (m) prefix, which denotes division by a factor of one thousand (×10−3). To avoid confusion, many companies and engineers use the notation “MMBtu” or “mmBtu” to represent one million BTU (although, confusingly, MM in Roman numerals would traditionally represent 2,000) and in many contexts this form of notation is deprecated and discouraged in favour of the more modern SI prefixes. Alternatively, the term therm may be used to represent 100,000 (or 105) BTU, and quad for 1015 BTU. Some companies also use BtuE6 in order to reduce confusion between 103 BTU and 106 BTU.[8]

Reduce confusion??? Ok, I think I can summarize that the BTU is a completely ill-defined, readily confusing non-metric unit, which can be expressed in several non-intuitive ways, one of which is therms. There is an interesting metric coincidence that it is often accepted by agreement (in other words we will pretend) that:

In natural gas, by convention 1 MMBtu (1 million BTU) = 1.054615 GJ.[9]

This is close to a Gigajoule. How about we simplify life and use Gigajoules in place of MMBtu? I have shown how simply a utility bill can be expressed with Gigajoules. I realize that the “commenter” is probably so well-off that he need not be bothered with quantifying energy usage, but this “engineer” does, and sees no reason for allowing confusopolies to continue to obscure billing information.

One can also note that his use of a simile: “BTUs are amounts of energy just like joules.”  is not exactly apt. Wikipedia also has this to say:

A BTU is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 avoirdupois pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at a constant pressure of one atmosphere.[2][3] As with the calorie, several definitions of the BTU exist, because the temperature response of water to heat energy is non-linear. This means that the change in temperature of a water mass caused by adding a certain amount of heat to it will be a function of the water’s initial temperature. Definitions of the BTU based on different water temperatures can therefore vary by up to 0.5%

The BTU is not a well-defined unit for energy, and neither is the calorie, that’s why the joule is used for energy by Engineers, scientists, and persons who want accurate energy bills, and those that have left the 19th century behind.

The “discussions” that occur in comment sections of—well—any blog or posting, have those who assert with great confidence, “information” that sounds right to those who are ill-informed, in an attempt to convince both those reading the assertion and the person making it, to remain so. The length of this blog is testament to this. Note how many words it took to deal with the flawed assertion of but one person. (With apologies to Mark Twain): The most outrageous ignorance that can be propagated will find believers if a man only tells them with all his might. This is what metric proponents encounter constantly.

Postscript:

CNN posted a piece in their “Great American Stories” series entitled Refusing to Give an Inch. The entire story is essentially a celebration of U.S. failure. How is that a Great American Story? The majority of the piece was cribbed from John Bemelmans Marciano’s anti-metric polemic Whatever Happened To the Metric System. A review of this monograph may be found here.

I was contacted by one of the authors by email last February. The story was to be about the controversy over the metric road signs in Arizona.  I sent the reporter links to A Tale of Two Iowans, The Chain Gang, and my response to NIST’s rejection of a We The People Petition to change the U.S. to the metric system. I told the author I was willing to talk at length, at anytime, and that they could find much useful information contained in my blogs.

The video that accompanies the written story is surprising in that a number of people interviewed didn’t seem bothered by the metric road signs. They even seemed to have a fondness for them. One person who recently moved there, soon didn’t notice the difference and seemed fine with the signs. This supports my thesis about The Metric Populist Revolt That Didn’t Happen. Much like the California DOT, that went from metric back to Ye Olde English, the Arizona spokesman speculated about dual-unit signs. He saw that as “the best of all worlds for everyone.” This is simply a way to first give U.S. citizens a way of ignoring the metric designations, and then eventually purging them. See Naughtin’s First Law.

The reason for the replacement of the metric road signs, which look perfectly fine, is they don’t have as much refection at night as desired. I suspect that all of the signs in Arizona must have been changed because of this new specification. Strangely there was no public outcry about the “massive costs” involved with replacing all the Ye Olde English signs. That would have been a perfect time to make all the road signs in Arizona metric. Metric resistance is not about cost, it has no rational basis.

I had hoped for a story with something other than an extended interview with Marciano that contains statements like:

Marciano, however, makes a credible argument for the old way of counting, which is based on everyday things and parts of the body.

“People say the metric system makes sense,” Marciano says, “But in nature we don’t think about dividing things by 10, do we? We think of halves and feet and thirds.”

Acres, for instance, were based on the amount of land a man could plow in a day.

“Throughout history we have measured things by ourselves,” Marciano says. “We are really losing something with metric.”

And another thing: People think the metric system has something to do with science.
It doesn’t, Marciano says, except that it is used in science and every scientist will
probably put forth a convincing argument for why it’s silly not to be metric.

The metric system is very “body friendly.” a long pace is almost exactly a meter (1000 mm). I’ve done this and checked buildings with a laser. The dimensions are remarkably close. The distance between a person’s nose and the tips of their fingers is about a meter. The width of a male hand, Marciano’s hobby horse measurement poster unit, is generally 100 mm. So is the length of many index fingers. The width of a pinky fingernail is about 10 mm.

I have dedicated my life to engineering  and science. Marciano’s statement that the metric system has nothing to do with science is simply at odds with the last two centuries of history. It is like stating that biology has nothing to do with lifeforms. I direct my readers to my essay The Americans Who Defined the Meter. The fact that the Earth is about 40 Megameters (40 000 Km) in circumference, is no simple coincidence. Englishman John Wilkins was tasked by the Royal Society of London to develop a universal measurement system that all scientists could use. When France finally implemented the metric system, it was guided by a number of very famous scientists. It’s science all the way down. The metric system has also been refined to make everyday measurement much easier for everyday people than Ye Olde English. The details are in my blogs.

CNN further informs us that:

…. John Bemelmans Marciano gave up writing the popular “Madeline” children’s books started by his grandfather and last year published “Whatever Happened To The Metric System?”

Marciano says his young editor had no idea the United States had come within millimeters of metrication. The book reveals a fascinating history of how this nation ended up keeping a system in which 16 ounces make a pound, 12 inches make a foot and 3 feet make a yard.

Marciano knows that we never came within a barleycorn of becoming metric. I’ve detailed this, here, and here and it’s tiresome to have metric revisionist history constantly propagated by Marciano and the lazy media. Marciano’s book does not explain what happened to metric system, the book has almost no metric content, and is only a long juvenile paean of schadenfreude directed at the U.S. metric failure. If you want to know why the U.S. is not metric, you will not find the answer in Marciano’s book, you will find it in Hector Vera’s PhD thesis: The Social Life of Measures Metrication in the United States and Mexico, 1798-2004 (September 2011). Worst of all for me was this (forgive me for re-quoting):

There are blogs like “Metric Maven” and even a book on the subject. John Bemelmans Marciano gave up writing the popular “Madeline” children’s books started by his grandfather and last year published “Whatever Happened To The Metric System?”

This, in my view, makes it look like my blog and Marciano’s anti-metric polemic are somehow complimentary or equivalent when they are completely at odds. I guess that it was good that at least I have a link. It would have been nice if this had been an article that does not celebrate a disaster as an American triumph, but I guess no matter what happened, in CNN’s view the lack of the metric system is a “Great American Story.”

If you liked this essay and wish to support the work of The Metric Maven, please visit his Patreon Page and contribute. Also purchase his books about the metric system:

The first book is titled: Our Crumbling Invisible Infrastructure. It is a succinct set of essays  that explain why the absence of the metric system in the US is detrimental to our personal heath and our economy. These essays are separately available for free on my website,  but the book has them all in one place in print. The book may be purchased from Amazon here.

The second book is titled The Dimensions of the Cosmos. It takes the metric prefixes from yotta to Yocto and uses each metric prefix to describe a metric world. The book has a considerable number of color images to compliment the prose. It has been receiving good reviews. I think would be a great reference for US science teachers. It has a considerable number of scientific factoids and anecdotes that I believe would be of considerable educational use. It is available from Amazon here.

The third book is called Death By A Thousand Cuts, A Secret History of the Metric System in The United States. This monograph explains how we have been unable to legally deal with weights and measures in the United States from George Washington, to our current day. This book is also available on Amazon here.

## 8 thoughts on “Metric Wishcraft”

1. The obtuseness of experts when they are wrong defies belief. If you point out an error to them they tell you it doesn’t matter, they are not wrong, or that you are wrong, and sometimes all three at once.

A few years ago I was a home energy advisor for an Australian utility company and, among other things explained peoples’ gas bills (in MJ!) and power bills in ( kWhr) to them. I would read blogs and articles published on the internet to keep current and noticed that in one article the author explained what watts and kilowatt-hours were, and then made the elementary error of using kilowatts where he should have used kilowatt-hours in a sentence something like “We only used 1,000 kilowatts that quarter.” I emailed to him explaining his error and got a reply saying that it didn’t matter, everyone would understand what he meant.

I know the Maven would have preferred the use of megajoules by that writer, but to define a measurement, misuse it immediately afterwards and then refuse to acknowledge your mistake takes a special kind of hubris.

On the BTU:
Airconditioners and refrigerators are all specified in watts and kilowatts here in Australia. I believe that British industry has also dropped the BTU in favour of the kW. A “therm” as used on the Maven’s gas bill is 100 000 BTU. Who decided to define it like that? Why not 1000 or 1 000 000 BTU to the therm?

Of course, you could do away with the BRITISH Thermal Unit and invent an American Thermal Unit as this nutcase proposed on Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/america/comments/21we5z/the_american_thermal_unit/

• In Australia, do they use the kWh as the symbol or the kWhr as you posted? Even though the hour is no an SI unit, it is excepted as part of SI and is used in conjunction with the kilometre to denote speed (km/h…not km/hr or kph).

In the US imported air conditioners only mention BTU on the package, but never the correct BTU/h. Not knowing the difference is proof in itself that this unit is not really understood and only used to be deceptive.

Also, it would be interesting to see if these same Asian companies that sell air conditioners with BTU packaging see the same product in Australia with SI only packaging.

One also has to ask if the air conditioners are designed behind the scene to a kilowatt value or a BTU value?

• I’m sure they have a very similar model for other markets, but the motor and fan need to be designed for 115 V, 60 Hz, and the cord for standard American power outlets.

I had to replace a window a/c a couple of years ago. The nameplate label clearly states Btu/h for cooling. The box is long tossed; I have no idea what it said.

• Hi, Ametrica,

Here is the specification for a reverse-cycle airconditioner sold by a chain of distributors who call themselves”The Good Guys”.

http://www.thegoodguys.com.au/fujitsu-c80kw-h90kw-reverse-cycle-split-system-set-astg30lfcc

The spec lists 9.0 kW heating capacity and 8.0 kW cooling capacity which is good for those +40ºC days in summer

Their entire range of airconditioners is available at:

http://www.thegoodguys.com.au/heating-and-cooling/air-conditioners

All of their products are rated in kW not BTU. ( The Maven would say it should be KW.)

My electricity bill is in kWh, not kWhr. My gas bill is in megajoules – MJ.

• There are enough British Thermal Units (based on the temperature range over which the pound of water is heated), that each nation could have it’s own:
That 1 million BTU = 1.054615 GJ the Maven Listed seems to be unique to Canada, and perhaps should be a Canadian Thermal Unit.

In 1968, the Secretary of Commerce (who defines such things in the US) in the Federal Register defined it as 1.054804 GJ; I would propose that as the American Thermal Unit. The EC (and presumably the UK) defined it as 1.05506 GJ; that could retain the name British Thermal Unit.

2. Isn’t it though a good thing that metrication failed in the US? Isn’t the damage metrication failure has caused a good thing for the world? Isn’t it giving countries like China and Germany the opportunity to wipe out American exceptionalism and replace it with a more multi-polar metric based world?

Metrication may have been a failure in the US and something for people like Marciano to gloat about, but it wasn’t a failure world wide. It has paid off for for many countries at the expense of the US.

It sure has paid off for Germany:

http://qz.com/452076/this-just-in-german-capitalism-has-won/

Whereas the US is struggling and England is stuck in austerity, Germany is booming. With the metric system they can design much faster and more accurate, they can manufacture with much less errors, they can service anywhere as metric tools are everywhere.

Their industrial standards, DIN – Deutsches Institut für Normung is respected world-wide and many of their standards have been copied into ISO and IEC.

If there is a country that deserves to called exceptional it is Germany.

http://www.usrepresented.com/2015/06/23/a-liter-bit-of-mathphobia/

“It doesn’t matter what the logical arguments are. It doesn’t matter how much it hurts our economy (six trillion/ year). It doesn’t matter how many jobs are lost (tens of thousands). We are not going metric even though there are Presidential candidates who advocate it. Why? Remember the blue–haired grandmother from earlier? It’s mostly her fault.”

This is actually what I’ve been saying all along. Lack of Metric is causing the US to whiter and die? Is this really a bad thing? Not really! Nature blesses the smartest and strongest and punishes the dumbest and weakest. It is the right time for the US to be tossed aside and newer, fresher powers to take the lead.

The inability of the US Congress to act is a sign of desperation and insecurity. When you are strong and forward moving, you become arrogant and fearless and are able to make sound decisions without fear of where those decisions will lead. When you are weak and stagnant, your fears grow and you are afraid to make any decision for fear of some form of retribution. This weakness will never subside and will continue to grow until the US is broken and occupied by a stronger power that will not be afraid to change the status quo. Beware of the days soon to be here, for when it comes heads will roll.

Marciano will go down in history as being one of the many catalysts that ended the American empire in our time. Probably not the legacy he was hoping for, but the legacy he will have earned.

3. From the UK
Great blogs and in comparison this is a trivial point but may raise a smile (against the background of transatlantic accord and to some extent a shared approach to good humour).
The point is simply the strange spelling of metre adopted. And while on the arrangement of writing the date in numerals.
K
13/08/2015 (that is the 13th of August 2015)

• There are many spelling differences between American and British English. Relative to metric, meter, liter, deka-, the phrase metric ton, and the use of L vs l as symbol for liter; we both use decimal points in place of decimal commas. All are either explicitly accepted or acknowledged without deprecation in the SI Brochure. NIST specifies these differences as preferred for US usage in NIST SP 330, the American version of the SI Brochure.

For the most part, we understand each other if we accept either spelling. It is less confusing if Brits use British spelling, and Yanks use American spelling. Commonwealth nations generally follow British usage although Canada has quite a few exceptions, being right next door.

As for the date, all standards except for ISO 8601 (2015-08-14) are national standards, various orders and separators may be used. For effective international communication, ISO 8601 is the safe choice, among English speaking nations, numeric month may be replaced with three character alpha month.